François cahen - great winds

This approach to match making was further refined in the proceeding decades, culminating with the 'Promethean Match' that was patented by Samuel Jones of London in 1828. His match consisted of a small glass capsule containing a chemical composition of sulfuric acid colored with indigo and coated on the exterior with potassium chlorate, all of which was wrapped up in rolls of paper. The immediate ignition of this particular form of a match was achieved by crushing the capsule with a pair of pliers, mixing and releasing the ingredients in order for it to become alight.

Parfum-Marken von A - Z . A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z" "Mo" Betta by Maury Tate (2) #

From the 9th century, Persian experienced an expansion from an opposite direction, this time at the hands of the Turks. After the end of the Omayyad period, high-ranked Turks in close proximity to the caliphs were a constant feature of the political and military structure of the caliphate. In the northeastern provinces of Persia, the system of ḡolām s (see BARDA AND BARDADĀRI iii ) favored the enrollment of Turks in Muslim armies. They converted to Islam and adopted Persian and gained entry into the military hierarchy. Conquerors of a state that in one century extended from Baghdad to Anatolia and to the Indus, the Turks in turn were won over by Persian culture (Riāḥi, 1990), while maintaining control of their new states for centuries. After them, Mongol and Mughal patrons preserved the same tradition and exploited the same legacy.

This offers a stimulating approach to the way that crusading could affect the structure of politics and society within the European kingdoms.  It seems to me to be one of the first works to look at the crusading movement from that very interesting oblique angle.

MUSIC - Recommended listening: Fugado y son nocturno by flutist extraordinaire Jane Bunnett and The Cuban Piano Masters, recorded 1993. Very hard to resist. Please buy Jane Bunnett's music.

François Cahen - Great WindsFrançois Cahen - Great WindsFrançois Cahen - Great WindsFrançois Cahen - Great Winds